Immediate improvement in poultry industry


H5N1 Public health crisis arising from the current outbreak And in view of the challenges related to climate change To solve challenges in poultry industry There is an urgent need for necessary reforms.

poultry industry in india

  • from poultry It means rearing birds for meat and eggs.
    • Some common types of poultry Includes chickens, turkeys, ducks, swans and quail. It is one of the fastest growing agricultural sub-sectors.
  • India is currently the world's third largest producer of poultry meat and eggs.Whose Annual production is more than 4.78 million tons of chicken and 129.6 billion eggs.
    • in the year 2022 Total poultry feed production in the country Was 27M metric tons/year.
  • Growth Rate: in India The poultry meat sector is growing at an annual average growth rate of 8%, year Egg production has increased by 7.45% between 2014-15 to 2021-22.
    • India's poultry market size is projected to reach Rs 2,099.2 billion in 2023, showing a growth rate (CAGR) of 8.9% during 2024-2032.
  • Top 5 Egg Producing States: Andhra Pradesh (20.13%), Tamil Nadu (15.58%), Telangana (12.77%), West Bengal (9.93%) and Karnataka (6.51%).

Challenges regarding poultry industry

  • Contaminated environment: cages exceeding limited capacity keeping poultry birds By which Unhygienic conditions arise Areresulting in air quality and waste problems due to odors, particulate matter and other greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has classified poultry units with more than 5,000 birds as a polluting industry, Which require compliance and regulatory consent to establish and operate.
  • Cruel behavior: In view of the operational activities in these industrial facilities, many These types of abuses cause unnecessary pain and suffering to birds.
    • Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 Keeping animals/birds in intensive confinement is an offense under the provisions of the Indian Penal Code.
  • Industrial Barriers: Poultry industry Is subject to large loans, informal facilities, contract farming, it requires a very specific skill which results in huge losses to the farmers
    • market volatility And farmers suffer losses due to the practices practiced by industry giants.
    • Use of antibiotics: To maximize production and profit These are regularly given to birds as prophylactic and growth promoters.
  • Antibiotics for preventive use: Classified as extremely important by WHO Antibiotics are also widely sold to farmers and given to day-old chicks to reduce the likelihood of disease and mortality.
  • Unhygienic Conditions: The unsafe and unhygienic conditions in which farms operate They also have harmful effects on the health of animals and the welfare of consumers.
    • Employees associated with these works and people living nearby are also unduly affected.
  • Waste generated: Poultry Industry Emissions into the Atmosphere (Methane and CO2), produces waste in the form of effluents in water systems and solid waste in the soil.
  • Inefficient Waste Disposal System: piled manure (waste material collected from time to time by local farmers for use as fertilizer) exceeds the carrying capacity of the land and Becomes a pollutant.
  • Breeding grounds for diseases: Garbage heaps become breeding grounds for disease vectors like flies and mosquitoes which spread to nearby areas and spread diseases.

government initiative

  • Mega Food Park Scheme: 42 Mega Food Parks (35 approved) are being set up by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries with approximately 1,200 developed plots (about 1 acre each) along with infrastructure, which can be taken on lease by entrepreneurs for setting up food processing and supporting units. Are.
  • Infrastructure Development: Planning infrastructure for cold chain, value addition and preservation and establishment/modernization of abattoirs (for government abattoirs).
  • Entrepreneurship Development and Employment Generation (EDEG): Poultry Venture Capital Fund under National Livestock Mission for improving the productivity of poultry production and processing units through technology upgradation.
  • Assistance to States for the Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD): This will include vaccination activities against economically important diseases of livestock and poultry, which will be prioritized by the State/UT according to the prevalence of the disease and loss to farmers.
  • fiscal initiative
    • 100% FDI allowed under the automatic route in the food processing sector.
    • New food processing, preservation and packaging units for the first 5 years of operation Income tax exemption is available at the rate of 100% and thereafter 25-30%.

Opportunities in Poultry Sector

  • Technology Upgrade: Given the changing preference of Indian consumers for clean, safe and hygienic meat, farm automation, modernization of abattoirs, better logistics channels, processing and sales cold storage infrastructure are the upcoming opportunities.
  • new product: Value added products like frozen/chilled products, RTC/RTE, Indian local products/snacks, egg powder plants etc.
    • new feed formulations and manufacturing
    • hatchery
    • New Veterinary Technologies/Services
    • Food Testing Laboratories

necessary improvements

  • 269th Law Commission of India Report, 2017 Completion Guidelines: It complied with the existing laws and animal care, waste management and antibiotic use Some guidelines have been laid down as per international best practices.
    • There was evidence that poultry was being given Non-medical antibiotics cause antibiotic resistance Because the living conditions are unhealthy.
    • It further states that With more open, clean and ventilated living spaces, animals are less likely to require frequent antibiotics, Due to which their eggs and meat become safe for consumption.
  • Environmental Regulations: Reclassification of Poultry Industry as Highly Polluting 'Orange Category' Industry by CPCB In view of this, strict monitoring is necessary for compliance and enforcement of environmental rules.
  • A focus on health and nutrition: To secure responsibly sourced, high-quality protein, there is a need to increase consumer awareness of the nutritional benefits of poultry products and its antibiotic-free status.
  • Emphasis on biosecurity and feed hygiene: Biosecurity measures and feed hygiene play an important role in preventing diseases, ensuring optimal growth and ultimately protecting the sustainability of the poultry industry.
  • Feed Milling and Feed Quality: To improve the quality of poultry industry feed Pellet Durabilityto optimize throughput, reduce energy consumption, good steam quality, proper water activity and humidity optimization Procedures are required.

H5N1 virus (bird flu):

  • About H5N1 virus: H5N1 is a subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) type A. Causes severe illness in birds resulting in death.
  • H5N1 virus It can spread to humans, wild birds, domestic poultry, pigs, horses, dogs, and bats, and has recently been found in polar bears in the Arctic and seals and seagulls in Antarctica.
  • First case: H5N1 infection first reported in Hong Kong in 1997 From where it spread to humans through chickens. The first case of H5N1 in India was reported in Maharashtra in 2006.
    • A worldwide outbreak was reported in December 2020, and in early 2021, India reported infection in 15 states.
  • Transmission: It can be spread through migratory wild birds. The main risk factor for transmission from birds to humans is direct or indirect contact with environments and surfaces contaminated with infected animals or feces.
  • death rate: Based on 463 deaths recorded by WHO among 888 people infected with the virus since 2003, The mortality rate for H5N1 in humans is estimated to be 52%.

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