History of India-Nepal border issue – Careers Ready


recently cabinet of nepal decided to put a map on the Rs 100 note in which Uttarakhand Some areas administered by India Shown as part of its region.

related facts

  • disputed area
    • This regional dispute 372 square kilometers Regarding the area in which Uttarakhand Located on the India-Nepal-China border in Pithoragarh district. Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh and Kalapani Are included.
    • Nepal has long been claiming that these areas historically and clearly He has the right.
    • this map Four years ago in the Parliament of Nepal was adopted unanimously. Prime Ministers of India and Nepal examine border issue And have agreed to seek resolution through diplomatic channels.

Origin of border issue

  • year 1814-16 At the end of the Anglo-Nepalese War treaty of sugauli Nepal as a result of In the hands of East India Company Had to lose a large part of his territory.
  • Article 5 of the treaty Jurisdiction of the rulers of Nepal on the land east of the Kali River Snatched away.
  • Years 1819, 1821, 1827 and 1856 In the maps issued by the British Surveyor General of India in Origin of Kali River Limpiyadhura Was shown in.
  • year 1879 The name of this river in the local language is shown in the next map published in 'Kuti Yangti' Used.
  • year 1920-21 In the map published in Kuti Yangti The name was retained, but with a different 'Black River' Was identified.
    • This river was depicted as a stream originating from a temple site and joining the main stream about a kilometer downstream.
    • However, in the last map issued by the British before leaving India in the year 1947, Initial state of Kali River originating from Limpiyadhura Was shown.
  • Villages of this area- Gunji, Nabhi, Kuti and Kalapaniwhom Tulsi Nyurang and Nabhidang Also known as, were under the census of Nepal Government till the year 1962, and the people paid land revenue to the government in Kathmandu. Although that year After the India-China war The situation changed.
  • Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru contacted King Mahendra of Nepal and to use black water Asked for permission, which is strategically important for the Indian Army. Close to 'trijunction' as base Was situated.
  • It was told in bilateral talks that King Mahendra had given this area gift to india but this issue was never resolved.

India-Nepal talks related to border issue

  • Several prominent personalities who officially represented Nepal in the bilateral talks claimed that the Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral (April 1997-March 1998) promised that they would give up these areas if Nepal was able to present evidence for its claim.
  • in July 2000 Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee met Nepal's Prime Minister G.P. assured Koirala that India One inch of Nepalese territory No interest in me either.
  • in the year 2014 Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to Nepal had raised hopes for resolution of all the controversial issues.
    • He and his Nepali counterpart, Sushil Prasad Koirala, agreed to an early resolution of the border issue at Kalapani and Susta. to establish a border working group agreed upon, which 145 square kilometers It is an area which came into Indian territory after the flow of Gandak River changed.
  • After returning from India in the year 2023, Nepal's Prime Minister claimed that India assured him that the border issue would be resolved as soon as possible; However, at the end of the official visit No mention of it in the official statement had not been.

tension in bilateral relations

  • of year 2005-14 The period of good relations, when India mediated the transformation of the Hindu kingdom in Nepal into a secular federal republic, year 2015 ended when Nepal rejected India's suggestion that Nepal's new Constitution Should be.
  • September 2015 Nepal started in 134-day blockade This has led to mistrust in relations with India and the KP Sharma Oli government has partnered with China as a new source of supply of essential goods. trade and transit agreements Took quick steps to sign.
  • in february 2018 of Nepal Communist Party (Unified Marxist-Leninist) President Oli was re-elected as Prime Minister with an overwhelming mandate in the first elections held under the new constitution.
  • year 2020 In 2017, the Oli government took the lead in building consensus in Parliament for a new map of Nepal, which formally 372 sq km located in Uttarakhand, It covered an area of commitment to bring back Expressed.
  • India defeated Nepal “Cartographic Aggression” unacceptable, but said that this issue based on evidence Has to be resolved through diplomatic channels.
    • It is noteworthy that less than two months after Oli's party joined the ruling coalition in Nepal, New notes of Rs 100 after a short time But the cabinet decision has come.

Importance of Nepal for India

  • Nepal 5 Indian states- Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Sikkim and Bihar Shares border with. so cultural and economic exchange This is an important point.
  • Nepal's to India Importance from two different angles Can be studied:
    • Their strategic importance for India's national security.
    • His place in India's role in international politics.
  • Nepal of India 'Himalayan Ranges' is right in the middle of And with Bhutan, this one Northern 'Border' and act as buffer states against any possible invasion from China.
  • rivers whose origin place nepal of India in terms of ecology and hydroelectric potential. perennial river systems Nourishes.
  • Many Hindu and Buddhist religious places Nepal making it an important pilgrimage site for a large number of Indians.

Difference from 2020 situation

  • in the year 2020 On the reverse of the currency note when the new map was adopted by the Parliament of Nepal No consensus on mapping It is visible.
  • UML and CPN parties are together in the ruling coalition, but are the main opposition and the largest party in Parliament. Nepali Congress has yet Any statement on this issue Has not given.
  • Chiranjeevi Nepal, economic advisor to Nepalese President Ram Chandra Paudel and former governor of Nepal's central bank, Rastra Bank, approved the cabinet decision. “unintelligent” And “provocative” has told.

closeness to china

  • Based on preliminary assessments, the government expects the hardships faced by Nepalese in the event of a 2015-like blockade with better road connectivity with China.
  • Nepal 1960 At the beginning of the decade Bilateral meetings of Border Commission Has resolved its border issues with China through.

India-Nepal Initiative

  • Arun-3 Hydroelectric Project
    • in the year 2019 the cabinet Arun -3 Hydropower Project Also approved was an investment of ₹1236 crore.
    • Arun-3 Hydro Electric Project (900 MW) It is a run-of-river located on the Arun River in eastern Nepal.
  • Establishment of satellite campus
    • India has Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at Rupandehi and has offered to set up a satellite complex of Indian and Nepalese universities Some draft MoU has been sent for signing between.
  • cross border rail link
    • The operation of the 35 km cross-border rail link from Jaynagar (Bihar) to Kurtha (Nepal) will be further extended to Bijalpura and Bardibas.
  • double circuit transmission line
    • in another project 90 km. Long 132 KV Double Circuit Transmission Line Incorporated is, which Mound (Solukhumbu) to the Indian border Near Mirchaiya (Siraha) Connects to.
  • multilateral projects
    • moreover, railway area agreements providing technical cooperation in, international solar alliance Nepal's entry into and regulation of petroleum products to ensure supply Indian Oil Corporation and Nepal Oil Corporation Agreements were also signed between.

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