India’s Growing Neighbourhood Dilemmas For UPSC


Title: Navigating India’s Diplomatic Challenges: A Closer Look at Geopolitical Shifts

In the complex arena of international relations, India finds itself facing significant challenges, particularly in its immediate neighborhood. Despite its global aspirations and endeavors to lead the global South, India encounters hurdles within the South Asian region, where the emergence of a powerful neighbor adds a layer of complexity unprecedented in its history.

Understanding Geopolitical Realities through Mearsheimer’s Lens:

Renowned international relations theorist John Mearsheimer’s offensive realism provides insights into the complexities of international dynamics. According to this theory, the world operates in an inherently anarchic system, compelling states to prioritize their security by maximizing power relative to others. Mearsheimer contends that this pursuit of dominance often leads to competition, insecurity, and potential conflicts.

Dilemmas Confronting India in Current Geopolitics:

India grapples with several dilemmas in its neighborhood, falling into three main categories:

  • Political Dilemma:
  • Anti-India Regimes: The rise of politically anti-India regimes, exemplified by the Maldives government’s explicit call for Indian troops to leave.
  • Potential Ideological Shifts: The upcoming elections in Bangladesh, with the prospect of a Khaleda Zia-led government, pose concerns about potential ideological strains affecting diplomatic relations.
  • Structural Dilemma:
  • Chinese Influence: The increasing sway of China in South Asia challenges India’s regional dominance. China’s economic and political prominence attracts nations, making it difficult for India to compete effectively in meeting the material needs of its neighbors.
  • Normative Dilemma:
  • Changing Regional Dynamics: China’s ‘norms-free-zone’ approach disrupts South Asian diplomacy, offering a non-normative alternative that challenges India’s historical dominance in setting regional norms.
  • Limited Choices: The absence of viable alternatives for South Asian states creates a dilemma, with China’s non-normative stance altering the dynamics, necessitating India to adapt its approach.

Comparing China and India in the Regional Context:

China stands out in several aspects that differentiate it from India:

  • Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and Economic Influence:
  • China’s active engagement in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) enhances connectivity and trade, with significant financial capabilities that surpass India’s impact in the region.
  • Outreach to South Asian States:
  • China’s proactive outreach to states like Taliban-led Afghanistan, military-ruled Myanmar, and crisis-hit Sri Lanka outstrips India’s efforts, showcasing the scale and financial backing of China’s diplomatic endeavors.
  • Border Dispute Resolution Strategy:
  • China’s approach to settling border disputes with its neighbors contributes to its unique standing in the region, contrasting with India’s efforts to resolve issues.

Root Causes of India’s Geopolitical Dilemmas:

  1. Diminishing U.S. Presence:
  • The changing regional geopolitical landscape with the diminishing presence of the United States creates a power vacuum, allowing China to fill the void.
  • Rise of China as a Geopolitical Buffer:
  • China’s substantial rise serves as a geopolitical buffer for smaller states, influencing their strategic choices and leveraging relationships with both India and China.
  • Neighbours’ Strategic Autonomy and China’s Appeal:
  • Neighboring states increasingly assert their autonomy, using the “China card” to pursue their interests, challenging India’s efforts to maintain influence.

Potential Outcomes of Geopolitical Shift:

Without innovative measures, India risks being geopolitically isolated in an unfriendly South Asia. To address these challenges, India should consider the following strategies:

  • Engage Friendly External Actors:
  • Strengthen bilateral and multilateral ties based on mutual respect, emphasizing historical, cultural, and economic links.
  • Flexible Diplomacy:
  • Adopt adaptable diplomatic strategies that engage multiple actors, focusing on reducing hostility and fostering constructive relationships.
  • Expand Diplomatic Personnel:
  • Invest in resources and personnel to enhance diplomatic efforts, increasing the number and quality of diplomats for effective representation.

Conclusion: Navigating India’s Role in a Changing South Asia:

India’s foreign policy in South Asia faces critical challenges amid China’s rise. Prioritizing economic connectivity, regional security cooperation, and leveraging soft power are essential for positive relationships. India’s strategic communication, active participation in regional platforms, and a patient, long-term vision are vital for stabilizing the evolving South Asian landscape.


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