Chernobyl Disaster – Careers Ready


There is still debate and disagreement among experts regarding the Chernobyl disaster that occurred on April 26, 1986, as to who is to be blamed for the Chernobyl disaster?

related facts

  • soviet authorities The main cause of the disaster was human error.
    • He stressed upon deficiencies in operational procedures and lack of production discipline.

  • reactor operators argued that his actions were in accordance with the laws of the time.
    • Operators also highlighted flaws in the reactor's design as contributing factors to the disaster.

chernobyl disaster

  • The disaster began on April 26, 1986.

  • Explosion in No. 4 reactor: Pripyat, Ukraine Caused by the explosion of the No. 4 reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near the city.
  • on 26th April International Chernobyl Disaster Remembrance Day Is celebrated as.
    • its beginning It was established by the United Nations in April 1986 to commemorate the events of the Chernobyl disaster.

Causes of Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster has been blamed on a combination of several factors, including:

  • Negligent decisions and improper operations by reactor employees: The operators did not follow proper safety guidelines and made some serious mistakes during safety testing.
    • This caused additional explosions and partially melted the reactor core.
    • A large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere.
    • The contamination also affected surrounding areas such as Belarus and Russia, as well as parts of Northern and Eastern Europe.

  • Flawed Reactor Design: The RBMK reactor used at Chernobyl had inherent safety issues in its design, which contributed to the severity of the accident.
  • Inadequate human-machine interaction: The reactor's control systems and design made it difficult for operators to respond to the situation safely.

consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

  • environmental and social disintegration
    • Radioactive Materials: The Chernobyl disaster resulted in a massive release of radioactive material into the environment during civil operations.
      • wider than Social and economic disruption occurredespecially large populations in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
  • Propagation and distribution of radioactive materials
    • Xenon Gas: Chernobyl by accident 4 reactor cores All the xenon gas, about half the iodine and cesium, and less than 5% of the remaining radioactive material were released.
      • Radioactive material was deposited locally as dust and debris, although lighter particles Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Scandinavia and Europe Was carried far by the wind.
  • human harm
    • Number of deaths: Many workers died due to radio-exposure in the wake of the Chernobyl disaster.
    • Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): This syndrome affects people exposed to doses greater than 700 milligrams (MGy), causing symptoms such as nausea, burning and fever.
  • Population Risk and Rehabilitation
    • Radiation in contaminated areas: Residents of contaminated areas were exposed to radiation, averaging 31 mSv in strictly controlled radiation control areas and 9 mSv in contaminated areas from 1986 to 2005.
    • Rehabilitation: Over time, an additional 220,000 people were resettled to less polluted areas, and the exclusion zones were modified and expanded to 4,300 square kilometers.

Initiatives related to nuclear safety and safe radioactive discharge

International Conference And agreements

  • Convention on Prompt Notification of Nuclear Accidents
    • It is a treaty signed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the year 1986.
    • It requires countries to inform other countries about any nuclear accident that could affect them.
  • Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS)
    • This is a legal treaty made in the year 1994.
    • Objective: Its purpose is to keep nuclear power plants safe.

India's initiative

  • Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)
    • It is an Indian agency responsible for ensuring that nuclear activities are safe.
    • This body sets rules and checks that nuclear facilities follow them.

      • It is an incentive-based treaty that requires countries to create rules to ensure nuclear safety and protect people and the environment from radiation.
  • European Union (EU) Directive on radioactive waste and spent fuel management
    • This body prepares rules for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel.
      • Member states must make plans to deal with these materials.

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